Views: 1 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-07-30 Origin: Site
Glutathione is a protein containing γ- Tripeptide of amide bond and sulfhydryl group, composed of glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine, exists in almost every cell of the body.
Glutathione can help maintain normal immune system function, and has antioxidant effect, integration and detoxification effect. The sulfhydryl group on cysteine is its active group (so it is often abbreviated as g-sh), which is easy to combine with some drugs, toxins, etc., so that it has an integrated detoxification effect. Glutathione can not only be used in drugs, but also as the base material of functional foods. It is widely used in functional foods such as delaying aging, enhancing immunity, anti-tumor and so on.
Glutathione has two forms: reduced glutathione (g-sh) and oxidized glutathione (g-s-s-g). Under physiological conditions, reduced glutathione accounts for the vast majority. Glutathione reductase can catalyze the interconversion between the two types, and its coenzyme can also provide NADPH for pentose phosphate bypass metabolism.
Glutathione is a tripeptide containing sulfhydryl group, which is combined by glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine. It has antioxidant effect and integrated detoxification effect. The sulfhydryl group on cysteine is the active group of glutathione (so glutathione is often abbreviated as g-sh), which is easy to combine with some drugs (such as paracetamol), toxins (such as free radicals, iodoacetic acid, mustard gas, lead, mercury, arsenic and other heavy metals), and has the effect of integration and detoxification. Therefore, glutathione (especially glutathione in hepatocytes) can participate in biotransformation, so as to convert harmful poisons in the body into harmless substances and excrete them out of the body. Glutathione can also help maintain normal immune system function.
Glutathione widely exists in animals and plants, and plays an important role in organisms. It is high in baker's yeast, wheat germ and animal liver, up to 100 ~ 1000 mg/100g, 26 ~ 34 mg/100g in human blood, 58 ~ 73 mg/100g in chicken blood, 10 ~ 15 mg/100g in pig blood, and high in tomatoes, pineapples and Cucumbers (12 ~ 33 mg/100g), while low in sweet potatoes, mung bean sprouts, onions and mushrooms (0.06 ~ 0.7 mg/100g).
Detoxification: combine with poisons or drugs to eliminate their toxic effects;
Participate in redox reaction: as an important reducing agent, participate in a variety of redox reactions in the body;
Protect the activity of sulfhydryl enzyme: maintain the reducing state of SH, the active group of sulfhydryl enzyme;
Maintain the stability of erythrocyte membrane structure: eliminate the destructive effect of oxidants on erythrocyte membrane structure.
As an important regulatory metabolite in cells, GSH is not only the coenzyme of glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, but also the coenzyme of glyoxalase and propionate dehydrogenase. It participates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glucose metabolism in the body, and can activate a variety of enzymes, such as sulfhydryl (SH) enzyme coenzyme, so as to promote the metabolism of sugars, fats and proteins. GSH molecule is characterized by active sulfhydryl (-sh), which is the most important functional group. It can participate in a variety of important biochemical reactions in the body, protect the sulfhydryl of important enzyme proteins in the body from oxidation and inactivation, and ensure energy metabolism and cell utilization. At the same time, through the combination of sulfhydryl and free radicals in the body, it can directly reduce free radicals to acidic substances, so as to accelerate the excretion of free radicals and resist the damage of free radicals to important organs. Haddad et al. Found that GSH is involved in the regulation of cytokine transcription induced by lipopolysaccharide and the regulation of i-kb/nf-kb signaling pathway. Armstrong et al. Found that the decrease of GSH content is a potential early activation signal of apoptosis, and the subsequent oxygen free radicals promote cell apoptosis.
Glutathione drugs are widely used in clinic. In addition to chelating heavy metal, fluoride, mustard gas and other toxins poisoning with its sulfhydryl group, it is also used in hepatitis, hemolytic diseases, keratitis, cataract and retinal diseases as drugs for treatment or adjuvant treatment. In recent years, Western scientists, especially Japanese scholars, have found that glutathione has the function of inhibiting HIV.
The latest research also shows that GSH can correct the imbalance of acetylcholine and cholinesterase, play an anti allergic role, prevent skin aging and pigmentation, reduce the formation of melanin, improve skin antioxidant capacity and make skin shiny. In addition, GSH also plays a good role in the treatment of canthus membrane disease and improve sexual function.
Glutathione, as an important antioxidant in the body, can remove free radicals in the human body; Because GSH itself is easily oxidized by some substances, it can protect the sulfhydryl groups in many proteins and enzymes from being oxidized by harmful substances in the body, so as to ensure the normal physiological functions of proteins, enzymes and other molecules; There is a lot of glutathione in human erythrocyte, which is of great significance to protect the sulfhydryl group of protein on erythrocyte membrane in a reduced state and prevent hemolysis.
Adding glutathione to food can play an unexpected role:
1. When added to flour products, it can play a reducing role. It not only reduces the time of making bread to one-half or one-third of the original time, but also greatly improves the working conditions, and plays a role in strengthening food nutrition and other functions.
2. When added to yogurt and infant food, it is equivalent to vitamin C and can act as a stabilizer.
3. Mix it with fish cake to prevent the color from deepening.
4. Added to meat products, cheese and other foods, it has the effect of strengthening flavor.