Views: 11 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-05-04 Origin: Site
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Lonicera) is a perennial flowering plant native to Europe and Asia.In summer, when a mature plant may reach a height of 1.5 m (5 ft), it produces fragrant pink or white flowers that attract many species of flies, especially hoverflies of the genus Eristalis.It is eaten as food by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) species, including gray pugs.A crude extract of valerian root may have sedative and anxiolytic properties and is often sold as a dietary supplement capsule to promote sleep,but there is not enough clinical evidence that it works for this purpose.Its roots and leaves cause a catnip-like reaction in cats.
The herb takes its name from the personal name Valeria and the Latin verb valere (to be strong, healthy).Other names used for this plant include garden valerian (to distinguish it from other Valeriana species), garden heliotrope (although not related to Heliotropium), setwall and all-heal (also used for stachys plants).Red valerian, commonly grown in gardens, is sometimes called "valerian", but it is a different species (Centranthus ruber), from the same family but not very closely related.It is also known as cat's love for its catnip-like effects.
Phytochemicals Known compounds detected in valerian include:Alkaloids: actinidine,chatinine,shyanthine,valerianine,and valerine.
Isovaleramide may be formed during extraction.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)Isovaleric acid.
Iridoids, including valerenic acids: isovaleric and valeric.
Sesquiterpenes (contained in volatile oils):pentenoates hydroxypentenoates and acetoxypentenoates.
Flavanones: hesperidin 6-methylpigenin and linalin.
Because of the variety of valerian's historical uses in traditional medicine, such as for sedation or pain relief, laboratory studies have been targeting the GABAA receptors, the receptors on which a class of benzodiazepines act.Valeric acid is responsible for the typical odor of most older valerian roots, it does not have any sedative effects.Valproic acid, a widely used anticonvulsant, is a derivative of valproic acid.Valerian also contains isovaleric acid, which has been shown to be an inverse agonist at the adenosine A1 receptor site.However, hydrophilic extracts of herbs commonly sold over the counter may not contain significant amounts of isovaleric acid.Valerenic acid in valerian root stimulates GABAA and serotonin receptors as a positive allosteric modulator and partial agonist, respectively.This includes 5-HT5A, which is involved in the sleep-wake cycle.