Views: 7 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2021-05-05 Origin: Site
Licorice extract is made from the perennial herb licorice. Triterpene saponins and flavonoids are the main components of licorice extract (ethanol extraction). Among them, glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid and glycyrrhizin are recognized as physiological Active active ingredients. As a natural and highly effective antioxidant, the application of licorice extract in food is still relatively limited. Mainly used as sweeteners, antioxidants, antibacterial agents, foaming agents and flavor enhancers, it is widely used in beverages, beer, meat and other foods.
Application in food
(1) Sweetener Licorice is called "sweet root" in ancient Greek, and the main ingredient that produces sweetness is glycyrrhizic acid. The content of glycyrrhizic acid in licorice is about 7%-27%. Glycyrrhizic acid, also known as glycyrrhizin, is a highly effective triterpene saponin sweetener, and its sweetness is about 50 times that of sucrose. Ammonium glycyrrhizinate is a sweetener approved by the European Union and the United States, and is mainly used in licorice, bakery, frozen dairy products, beverages, candy, chewing gum, etc.
(2) Antibacterial agent The licorice extract contains a variety of antibacterial ingredients, including licorice flavonoids, licorice chalcone, glycyrrhizin, etc., which can effectively inhibit the growth of food spoilage bacteria and pathogenic bacteria. There are many and in-depth related studies. The alcohol extract of licorice root can inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Licorice chalcone, glycyrrhizin and licorice flavone have a strong inhibitory effect on gram-positive bacteria, and their effect is equivalent to streptomycin; at the same time, glycyrrhizin and licorice flavone also have a strong inhibitory effect on yeast and fungi. Licorice chalcone mainly inhibits the growth of Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, among which Glycyrrhiza inflata extract has the best antibacterial effect. Licorice flavonoids have significant inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The inhibitory effect of licorice extract on Bacillus subtilis is better than that of Escherichia coli, and it is believed that lipopolysaccharide on the cell membrane of gram-negative bacteria restricts the diffusion of hydrophobic compounds. The inhibitory ability of licorice extract against Listeria monocytogenes is stronger than that of cloves, oregano, rosemary and other 13 kinds of spices. Its inhibitory ability against Pseudomonas fluorescens is second only to cinnamon, and against Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus sake There is no inhibitory effect. The mixed extract of licorice and rosemary has the best effect, which is better than the combination of clove, rosemary, cinnamon, licorice and any single product.
(3) Antioxidants The antioxidant active ingredients of licorice extract mainly include glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhizin flavonoids, flavonoids, phenolic substances, polysaccharides and so on. Glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhizin have a synergistic antioxidant effect. As a non-enzymatic antioxidant of meat products, licorice extract plays an important and positive role in preventing oxidation of fat and protein during meat storage and maintaining meat quality.
(4) Flavor enhancer, foaming agent Because licorice has a pleasant characteristic flavor, licorice is widely used as a spice in food to improve the flavor of food. Licorice extract is mainly used to improve the flavor of foods such as candies and beverages. Glycyrrhizic acid is a good surfactant, used as a foaming agent in foods such as wine and alcoholic beverages, candies, halva and sweets. Glycyrrhizic acid can be used to enhance the flavor of cocoa powder, and can replace about 25% of cocoa powder in foods containing cocoa. Adding glycyrrhizic acid to chewing gum can give chewing gum a more lasting flavor. The licorice extract is added to a liquid dietary supplement made of cranberry to improve the flavor of the product and stabilize the product state. Glycyrrhizic acid produces a small amount of foam in the citrus juice, making it fresh and natural. Glycyrrhizic acid is also used in carbonated beverages to improve the foaming properties of carbonated beverages. Glycyrrhizic acid is a good surfactant. It is mainly used as a foaming agent in beer fermentation to make the foam of beer fine and stable, and can reduce the bitterness that may be produced by the beer.