Views:4 Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2020-06-22 Origin:Site
Abstract: The pharmacological activity of Echinacea extract is introduced, the research status and production and use status at home and abroad, and the development and application status in the breeding industry.
In animal breeding, viral diseases are the most important infectious diseases that seriously endanger animal health and affect the sustainable development of the breeding industry. Therefore, controlling the outbreak and treatment of viral diseases is one of the primary problems faced by animal breeding.
There is no effective treatment for viral diseases such as swine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, swine fever, infectious bursal disease, avian influenza, and Newcastle disease. Looking for an effective, residue-free preventive and therapeutic drug is imminent.
The immune prevention function of the animal body and the immune system of the animal body directly affect the production performance of the animal, and the maintenance of the normal immune prevention function of the animal body is the premise for the animal to reach the normal production level or exert the potential optimal production performance. In particular, the immune-enhancing and anti-disease preparations of traditional Chinese medicine and natural medicine extracts have become fashionable today as "return to nature" and "green consumption" have made natural botanical medicine physics naturally a good choice for modern medical care, and natural plant medicine extracts The immune-enhancing and anti-disease preparations have unparalleled advantages over chemical drugs: they regulate the body's immune function and have a significant effect in preventing and curing diseases; they have little toxic and side effects and will not produce drug resistance; they are difficult to develop, have a short cycle, and have low costs. Echinacea, as an introduced herbal plant, has been generally valued for its significant immune enhancement and antiviral effects. In order to meet the needs of livestock and poultry farming in my country, many domestic veterinary medicine and feed additive companies have developed immune-enhancing antiviral preparations with echinacea natural plant extract as the main component. Echinacea Monenck (E.chinacea Monenck) is a type of wild asteraceae flower native to America, also known as "Echinacea purpurea". There are 8 species and several varieties of this genus, all of which are perennial herbs. The flower heads are solitary on the stem or branch.The main feature is that the receptacle is conical, with tubular flowers or tongue-shaped flowers, usually rose or purple . Those who have been developed into medicines are mainly Echinacea purpurea (also called Echinacea purpurea), E. angustifolia (Echinacea purpurea) and E. pallia. Among them, Echinacea is an immunopromoting agent and immunomodulator that has received international attention. Its sales of extracts and preparations rank among the top 5 in the US pharmaceutical market. Its medicinal history can be traced back to the period of the North American Indians. This genus is used as the best medicine for treating trauma, snake bites, headaches and colds. It is widely used in the West and is a world-famous "immune" herbal medicine with outstanding anti-infection And the role of promoting immunity has received great attention at home and abroad.
1.1 Pharmacological activity
1.1.1 Immune activity
It is reported that the ethanol extract of Echinacea root has a certain promoting effect on the phagocytic function of granulocytes. At a concentration of 1.0×10-4 mg/mL, the phagocytic function of granulocytes is 33% higher than that of the control group. The polysaccharide part of Echinacea (M5000-50000) can stimulate the phagocytic function of macrophages; stimulate the proliferation of T lymphocytes; hemolytic plaque test shows that it can significantly increase the number of plaques, thus can significantly enhance the humoral immune function; VSV-infection test shows that The weak interferon-like effect can inhibit virus growth. Echinacea crude polysaccharide (EPS) 100 ug can stimulate the proliferation of B lymphocytes in mice, and can enhance the humoral immune function of mice. In addition, Echinacea's arabinogalactan (AG) (20～200 ug/mL) can stimulate the phagocytic function of macrophages , and AG can also stimulate activated macrophages to secrete interferon-β2. .
1.1.2 Anti-inflammatory activity
Echinacea was used as a traditional anti-inflammatory drug in North America and Europe. The North American Comanche was used for toothache, and the Su was used for rabies, snake bites, and sepsis. Western countries are used to prevent and treat upper respiratory tract diseases such as colds and flu, skin diseases such as acne, boils and trauma, allergic diseases such as asthma, and throat pain. The main component of the caffeic acid derivative leached by echinacea ethanol is cichoric acid. Chicory acid has the function of enhancing immunity and anti-inflammatory, and can inhibit hyaluronidase, protect collagen Ⅲ from free radicals that can cause degradation. Recent studies have also shown that chicory acid can inhibit HIV-1 and HIV-1 integrase. In addition, the polyunsaturated isobutyl amide contained in the root and aerial parts of Echinacea has the function of immunoregulation, can prevent inflammation caused by pathogens, has strong anti-inflammatory activity, and can be used for bacterial infections. Echinacea extract has been reported to have varying degrees of inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus, Group B streptococcus, Klebsiella, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Its clinical antibacterial effect and mechanism of action may be due to its immunostimulatory activity.
1.1.3 Anti-viral and anti-tumor activity
Wacker and Hilbig [using mouse L-929 and Hela cell culture method confirmed that Echinacea extract has indirect anti-influenza virus, herpes virus and vesicular stomatitis virus activity; May and Willuhn found that echinacea extract has a significant inhibitory effect on influenza virus, herpes virus and polio virus. Its mechanism of action is related to immune stimulation and anti-hyaluronidase. Echinacea can kill tumor cells by stimulating macrophages to produce tumor necrosis factor, interleukin, interferon and so on. It is reported in the literature that (Z)1,8- pentadecadiene shows obvious anticancer activity in vitro . The fructose in the polysaccharide contained in Echinacea has anticancer activity, and γ-inalin particles have been confirmed to be the active ingredients of inulin preparations, which exclusively activate the alternative pathway of complement.
1.2 Toxicological studies
According to the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA), the report of Echinacea did not mention the reports of reproductive toxicity, embryo toxicity, and mutagenic toxicity; according to the literature, Echinacea is acute in animals Studies with long-term toxicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity have not shown obvious harmful effects, indicating that the drug can be safely used in clinical research.
2 Research status and production and use at home and abroad
2.1 Domestic research and usage
First, the introduction of echinacea in some provinces and cities such as Beijing and Nanjing in China has successfully solved the problem of raw materials, and the content of active ingredients has been improved compared with the origin, thus providing a basis for the development and utilization of echinacea resources in China . There are domestic manufacturers in Tianjin, Beijing, Shaanxi, Guangxi, Sichuan and other provinces and cities that produce echinacea extract, which solves the problem of the source of raw materials for preparations.
The introduction of echinacea in my country is not long, and there are few related studies, but it has aroused widespread concern about personnel. In 2001, the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine listed the Echinacea plant as a major scientific and technological development project, under the supervision of Wang Hong and Dr. Zhang Yingtao of the School of Pharmacy, Peking University. The Echinacea plant (including echinacea, echinacea, and echinacea The biology, medicinal basis and effective ingredient determination of chicory acid in Echinacea) have been studied in detail; in addition, the quality control of echinacea medicinal materials is a key project of the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" of the Ministry of Science and Technology. The HPLC content determination and standard formulation of the constituent chicory acid have been extensively studied, which provides a basis for the analysis of echinacea extract. It is reported that the Jinpingfeng capsule of Zhejiang Zhengda Qingchunbao Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. and the purple yellow essence health care product of Chengdu Diao Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd. are both immune enhancers that use echinacea extract as the main component.The prominent medicinal value of echinacea has been caused In view of the interest of many domestic pharmaceutical companies and natural medicine workers, there is a trend of increasing popularity in China.
2.2 Foreign research and use
Echinacea extract preparation, as an immunomodulator and immunostimulant, was listed in the 2,000 most commonly used prescriptions in Germany as early as 1989, ranking 131. Currently in Germany alone, there are more than 300 types of single and compound preparations of echinacea. The most common dosage form is an oral preparation of echinacea extract, such as tablets or capsules.The most famous one is Esberitox N produced by Schaper & Brummer Pharmaceuticals in Germany.It is a compound preparation of echinacea and other Chinese herbal medicines. Annual sales volume has reached 3 million US dollars.
There are many dosage forms of echinacea extracts in foreign countries, which have been widely used in clinics, such as the treatment of acute or chronic respiratory infections caused by viral diseases or bacteria; adjuvant treatment of various antibiotics to treat various serious bacterial infections. Echinacea ranked first on the 1995 best-selling list of American healthy foods. Echinacea is an immunopromoter and immunomodulator that has received widespread attention internationally in modern times. To date, more than 400 scientific papers have been published and monographs of echinacea have been published.
3 Development and application in the breeding industry
In animal farming, due to the influence of climate, environment, management, feed and other factors, the livestock and poultry disease spectrum has undergone great changes.Immune dysfunction diseases, environmental pollution diseases, drug-induced diseases and overnutrition or Malnutrition diseases have increased significantly, and the diseases have changed from treatment to prevention. Existing chemical drugs have not fully adapted to the needs of livestock and poultry farming. In particular, the efficacy of existing antiviral chemical drugs is not good or the side effects and resistance of some drugs are becoming more and more prominent. In this case, people have begun to turn their attention to natural drugs. In view of the good immune-enhancing activity and outstanding antiviral effect of Echinacea extract, domestic and foreign studies have shown that it is safe and effective, with low toxicity and side effects, and today the resources of medicinal echinacea are increasingly abundant. The application of this has undoubtedly played a positive role in the development of aquaculture production. For example, Shandong Qilu Animal Health Products Co., Ltd. took echinacea natural plant extract as the main ingredient and took the lead in developing a new, safe, efficient, animal-specific immune-enhancing antiviral preparation-echinacea soluble powder (trade name echinacea) Tests have shown that echinacea soluble powder has a significant enhancement effect on the humoral immunity of broilers after ND and IBD. It is manifested in the time that can promote antibody production and maintain higher antibody levels, which can effectively reduce the occurrence of atypical diseases. In addition, echinacea soluble powder is often used as an auxiliary and necessary drug for the treatment of various livestock and poultry infections, which can stimulate the natural healing power of animals and shorten the course of disease. Multiple production data show that the soluble powder of Echinacea achieves the desired effect on the prevention and control of multi-system debilitating syndrome, atypical swine fever, and viral diseases (blue ears, rings) in weaned piglets. Compared with the control group, the diarrhea rate of piglets is greatly reduced, the survival rate is improved, the daily weight gain is improved, and the common immune disorders and drug-induced diseases in breeding are significantly reduced. After more than a year of promotion and application, the majority of farmers have achieved good economic benefits. At present, the development and application of feed additives with echinacea extract as the main component is obvious. On the one hand, because of its outstanding immune enhancement and antiviral efficacy, on the other hand, because it comes from natural plants, it can guarantee the quality of livestock and poultry products. Health and safety. Therefore, the reasonable development and application of echinacea extract in modern aquaculture has broad prospects.